For the last few months the whole country was speaking about Article 370. We all knew that Article 370 which provided a special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir was scrapped. If you are not aware, let me explain. The law of citizenship, ownership of property, and fundamental rights of the residents of Jammu & Kashmir is different from the residents living in rest of India. Under Article 370, citizens from other states cannot buy property in Jammu & Kashmir. Under Article 370, the Centre has no power to declare a financial emergency in the state. We all know that this article is scrapped and before speaking about why it was done, take a moment to think about of these articles of the Indian constitution. Do you know what is the Indian constitution and its features about? Let us a take a look.
The Constitution is the fundamental law of a country which reflects the fundamental principles on which the government of that country is based. The concept of constitution was first originated in U.S.A. All Democratic countries have a constitution that governs them. A constitution puts down certain principles that form the basis of any kind of a state that we as citizens, desire to live in.
The Constitution of India was framed by a Constituent Assembly setup under the Cabinet Mission Plan, 1946. The Assembly worked through various committees and the draft of the Constitution was prepared by the Drafting Committee under the chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. He is recognised as the ‘Father of the Constitution of India’. After the draft had been discussed by the people, the press, provincial assemblies and others, the Constitution was finally adopted on November 26, 1949, contained. It contains Preamble of 22 parts, 395 Articles and 8 Schedules. The drafted Constitution came into force on 26th January, 1950.
Features of Indian Constitution
- It is the lengthiest of all the written constitutions of the world.
- It has borrowed most of its provisions from the constitutions of various countries.
- It is partly rigid and partly flexible.
- It establishes a federal system of government.
- It establishes the parliamentary system not only at the Centre but also in the states.
- It makes India as a secular state.
- It provides an independent judiciary.
- It introduces Universal Adult Franchise and accords the right to vote to all citizens above 18 years of age without any discrimination.
- It provides single citizenship.
- It makes special provisions for minorities, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, etc.