Micro processors are the most complex electronic product which constitute the hardware system that makes up the CPU. These are created using silica sand which contains silicon dioxide. Silicon is the second most commonly found element in the earth. It is the base material for semi conductors and its purest form is utilized. It is cheap and abundant.

The first silicon transistor was created in 1950s. Earlier germanium was used but it has been replaced by silica. Silica has stronger bonds at high temperature as compared to germanium.

Primarily, the silica to be used is purified and filtered through many processes. The silica is then melted at high temperature that is 2800 F. Then the silicon is shaped from melted silica. This is then cut into thin wafers to make it suitable for fabrication. These wafers are then polished.The chips are manufactured from the wafers through a process called photolithography . The wafers are exposed to ultra violet light mask and exposed light is washed off . These are then bombarded with ions to change its conductive properties, this process is called doping. Unwanted silicon is removed by using certain chemicals. Finally, the insulation layer is applied to the transistor and three holes are etched in which copper is deposited using electroplating.

So this is the whole journey of microprocessors starting from sand. Without the invention of microprocessor, no computer or artificial intelligence systems are possible.


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